Nature encompasses alluring, enchanting organisms one can think. These creatures might vary from smallest protozoans to largest mammals. All the creatures need food for getting energy. The method of capturing food differs in several cluster of taxa. The manner in which the protozoans devour their prey is also magnificent. The mechanism of obtaining nutrition is additionally amazing. Nutrition is a process of taking food in and digesting it and assimilating it to get energy. The ways in which in which the protozoans acquire their nourishment additionally varies drastically. They represent nearly each kind of nutrition. They’ll be holozoic, holophytic, parasitic, coprozoic, mixotrophic, saprozoic.
1. Holozoic Nutrition
The majority of Protozoans nourish themselves in the style as the higher organisms did. They are in a position to prey on various micro-organisms, rotifers, crustaceans, other protozoans etc. Such protozoans are termed as Holozoic. They will be carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous or scavangerous. Holozoic nutrtion is also termed as zootrophic nutrition. This kind of nutrition involves three basic steps:
A. Food Capture and ingestion
The regular method of food intake is also termed as phagocytosis, that differs greatly in numerous classes of protozoa. The locomotory organelles play an necessary role in food capture and ingestion. Rhumbler has defined four ways in which the locomotory organelles participate in food capture and ingestion.
This technique is terribly common Amoeba. Here the prey is surrounded by the locomotory organelle termed as pseudopodia from all the edges while not coming back in direct contact with the prey and a cup is formed. The food cup is soon completed by forming a food vacuole enclosing the prey with massive amount of water.
This method is aided by the locomotory organelles termed as axopodia and reticulopodia for capturing an immobile prey. A food cup is created by direct contact with the prey and cytoplasm flows around the prey for engulfing it.
During this case, the prey is 1st killed by a toxin secreted by the pseudopodia and then it is enclosed in the form of a food vacuole together with cytoplasm.
In this case, the passive prey like the filamentous alga is merely drawn into the body upon contact and ingested. The general body surface plays an important role during this process.
B. Digestion and Assimilation
Digestion is usually intracellular. The food vacuole is surrounded by a film. Acids, alkalies and enzymes are poured over the food to ensure digestion. The reaction is initial acidic then alkaline. The prey is killed within the acidic setting which lasts for four-60 minutes. Digestion mostly happens in the alkaline phase. The digestive enzymes are aided by the lysosomes. Protein splitting proteases and starch splitting amylases are of wide occurrence. The presence of fat splitting lipase is controversial.
In naked forms like Amoeba, the undigested matter goes out from the hinder part of the body. In some ciliates egestion happens through a permanent opening gift at the posterior end of the body termed as cytopyge.
2. Holophytic Nutrition
This mode of nutrition is additionally termed as autotrophic nutrition. This is often very common in chlorophyll bearing flagellates. These organisms do photosynthesis with the assistance of carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll. The oxygen is liberated and the left carbon is employed for making food. The starch is stored in the shape of amylum but in Euglena it’s stored in the shape of paramylum that is not coloured blue with iodine. Certain protozoans house symbiotic green alga that perform photosynthesis and provides food to them.
3. Saprozoic Nutrition
This mode of nutrition is also termed as osmotrophy. Here the flagellates that are in direct contact with the organic matter of the decomposed plants and animals obtain their nourishment. They get their food in the form of dissolved material.
This is conjointly termed as cell drinking.It had been initial studied by Mast and Doyle in 1934 in Amoeba proteus. Pinocytotic channels are fashioned within the body for absorbing liquid food from the surrounding medium. This method helps the organism in getting higher molecular compounds from the encircling medium.
5. Parasitic Nutrition
The Sporozoans are fully parasitic and obtain their nourishment by living as parasites within the body of other animals. They fall under two categories:
They prey on the raw or digested material of the host in saprozoic manner. They’re harmless endocommensals. E.g., Nyctotherus, Balantidium
Concerning twenty six species of protozoa are known to be parasitic to humans. They are accountable for inflicting dreadful diseases like Sleeping illness, Malaria etc.
6. Coprozoic Nutrition
Several free living Protozoans go after the faecal matter of different animals and are termed as coprozoic. Eg., Cercomonas etc.
7. Mixotrophic Nutrition
Many Protozoans are able to get their nutrition in a lot of than one way. Euglena gracilis is able to take nutrition both holophytically along with saprozoically.
Whatever might be suggests that of devouring food all ends up in adaptation to colossal environment.